Hydro turbines are equipment found in hydroelectric power facilities that convert the energy of flowing water into electrical energy by transferring it to a spinning shaft. When water is applied to these turbines’ blades, they begin to revolve or spin. These turbines are crucial in the field of hydropower, which uses water to generate energy.

Turbines are often built in the same way. A rotating shaft or plate is equipped with a row of blades. The inner shaft of the turbine is thus made to rotate by the passage of water over its blades. After that, a generator uses this rotational motion to produce electricity. There are ᴍᴀɴy various types of turbines, and each one is ideally suited for a particular use. Every type of turbine is designed to produce the most amount of power possible under the circumstances.

The hydraulic head—the height and velocity of the incoming water—and the hydroelectric discharge—the amount of water flowing—determine the type of turbine chosen for every given hydropower project. Cost and efficiency are additional aspects to take into account.
Pressure Change: If the liquid pressure changes as it passes through a turbine, that is another factor used to categorize turbines. This classification results in two different types of turbines, which are described below.

Impulse Turbine
In impulse turbines, the liquid’s internal pressure remains constant. Instead, the turbine itself functions at atmospheric pressure, with pressure variations only occurring in the nozzles that direct water flows to it. These turbines consist of a jet nozzle that shoots water toward the turbine’s blades. Where a large wheel cannot be used, multiple nozzles are typically used. The speed of the water varies when it ʜɪᴛs the blades.
The momentum changes, as a result, of applying pressure to the turbine blades. For these turbines to have high efficiency, they must be able to capture all of the kinetic energy from the water. Impulse turbines do not require submersion, in contrast to reaction turbines. Pelton, Turgo, and Crossflow turbines are a few examples of impulse turbine types. Follow the links to the relevant sections for further details on the locations these turbines are utilized and how they are made.

Reaction Turbine
Water pressure varies in reaction turbines as it passes through the turbine’s blades. The response turbine, in contrast to an impulse turbine, relies on the direct utilization of water pressure to move blades rather than the conversion of water pressure to kinetic energy. Reaction turbines must therefore be submerged in water. The parts of these turbines also need to be able to withstand high pressure inside the turbine. Here, the turbine blades are moved as a result of the fluid velocity and drop in water pressure. Francis turbines and Kaplan turbines are two varieties of reaction turbines. Follow the links to the relevant sections for further details on the locations these turbines are utilized and how they are made.

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