In the machining process known as turning, a cutting tool—typically a non-rotary tool bit—moves more or less linearly while the workpiece rotates, describing a helical toolpath.
The creation of external surfaces by this cutting action is typically referred to as turning, whereas the creation of internal surfaces by this same fundamental cutting action is referred to as boring. Thus, the greater family of lathing processes is categorized as turning and boring. Faceting is the process of creating faces on a workpiece using either a boring or a turning tool, and it can be included in either category as a subset.

You can turn by hand, using a typical lathe that frequently necessitates constant operator supervision, or by employing an automated lathe that doesn’t. The most popular type of automation in use today is computer numerical control or CNC.

Turning produces exact diameters and depths by rotating the workpiece while moving a cutting tool along 1, 2, or 3 axes of motion. Turning can create tubular components with diverse shapes either on the inside or outside of the cylinder. Early lathes could even be used to create complex geometric structures, such as platonic solids, however, this is now fairly unusual because CNC has made using non-computerized toolpath control for this purpose more common.

The turning procedures, which include straight turning, taper turning, profiling, and external grooving, are normally performed on a lathe, one of the earliest forms of machine tools. These turning techniques can generate materials in a variety of shapes, including straight, conical, curved, or grooved workpieces. Typically, simple single-point cutting tools are used for turning. An ideal set of tool angles has been created over time for each category of workpiece materials.

Chips or swarf are the scrap metal left over after turning operations. They may also be referred to as turnings in some places. It doesn’t matter if the tool’s axes of movement are physically straight lines or follow a series of curves or angles; they are still essentially linear. A part that has undergone turning operations may be referred to as a turned part or a machined part. On a lathe machine, which can be handled manually or via a CNC, turning operations are performed.

Let’s watch the machining mandrel cone – CNC turning – what is the process of turning in the amazing video below.

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Video resource: Chris Maj